The territory of the Russian Federation, officially referred to as the Republic of Tyva, is part of the Siberian Federal District. It also belongs to the East Siberian economic region. Tyva borders on the Altai, Khakass, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk and Buryat regions of the Russian Federation, and in the south it borders on Mongolia. On October 14, 1944, it became part of the Soviet Union and became the Tuva Autonomous Okrug, and since 1991 it has been called the Republic of Tyva.

The population is 350,000 people, of which 82% are national minorities, and according to this indicator, the share of indigenous ethnic groups is the highest among the subjects of the Russian Federation. After the entry of Tuva into the Soviet Union, Russians made up almost half of the population, but since 1991 their numbers have declined sharply. The capital Kyzyl has 125 thousand inhabitants. In addition to 3,000 Tuvans living in Krasnoyarsk, 1,500 in Irkutsk, and 1,000 in Buryatia, 3-5,000 Tuvans live in Mongolia (they belong to the Monchoks, Tsengelts, and Tsaatans ), and 14,000 Tuvans live in China.

Tuvans are a nomadic people of Turkic origin. Chinese sources have been writing about them since the 6th century. They were part of the Uyghurs, Kirghiz, and Khitans who ruled the Mongol highlands. In 1207, the army of Jochi, the son of Genghis Khan, captured the people of the forest, and the Tuvans shared the fate with the Mongols. In the "Secret History of Mongolia" they are called "Ortsog ", "Oin", "Khoin", etc. Later they came under the control of Altan Khan Khotgoyt. After the suppression of the uprising of the Dzungar Khanate in 1766, the Tuvans, like other nearby provinces, became part of the Qing state.


The Tuvans never called themselves "Uryankhay", this name was given to them by the Mongols. Tuvans call themselves "Tuva", "Tyva", "Soyod", etc.[i] This erroneous name originated during the administrative changes during the Qing Dynasty. Uryankhays are native Mongols. The Mongolian nation is descended from the ancient Shiwei tribe, and the great Shiwei are considered to be Taichuds, mengu Shiwei[ii]- Mongols, and Uryankhay Shiwei - Uryankhay.[iii] The famous commanders Subutai and Jebe are said to have been born into the Uryankhay tribe. From the time of Dayan Khan Batmunkh, who unified Mongolia, Mongolia consisted of six major tribes. Previously, "tumen" meant a common unit capable of gathering 10,000 warriors, and over time it turned into a single detachment of clans and tribes. Since that time, the name "Six Tribes of Mongolia" was born. The six tribes are divided into "three right tribes" and "three left tribes". The eastern trio will consist of three peoples: tsakhar, khalkha and Uryankhay.[iv] In 1538, when an uprising took place in Uryankhay, the peoples of the West and East united, and Uryankhay was defeated, the tribes were divided, and its population was distributed among other provinces. Taking advantage of this, the province of Khalkha expanded its pastures to the west of the Khenti range and established itself behind the Khangai range.[v] The defeated Uriankhians fled to Altai mountain and the Hubsgul region. From here the names Altai Uryankhay and Hubsgul Uryankhay were born. Over time, the word "Uryankhay" acquired a second meaning - borderland.

In 1731, a border was drawn between the two sides - the Khalkha and the Oirats - in the western part of modern Mongolia. The reason was that the seven Uryankhay khoshuns beyond the Altai mountains were dependent on the Khalkha, and not on the Oirats.[vi]

The Qing emperor Kangxi divided Outer Mongolia into 34 provinces, and this process continued actively: Mongolia would be divided into 125 counties, including 7 counties of the Yenisei Uryankh region.[vii] So the Yenisei and the entire Siyaan Range began to be called the Uryankhay region. Tannu Uryankhay is the name of a place that has nothing to do with the Tuvans living there.

According to the Nerchinsk Treaty, Russia and China generally established their borders in Manchuria, starting from the Pacific Ocean. This means that after Khalkha submitted to the Qing state, the old border of Khalkha with the Dzungar Khanate or the Altai Mountains became empty. Taking advantage of this period, the Russians began to try to capture the territories of Tannu Uryankhay and Hubsgul Uryankhay.


Under the Sino-Russian Khiagt Treaty of 1727, the Russians captured Buryad Mongolia, but the Uryankhay region, like other Mongolian provinces, belonged to the Qing dynasty, so the Russians did not care at all. Under this agreement, a Russian-Chinese border line was established from the Shavi pass to Avgait, 87 border outposts were erected, and the border was established along the Siyan mountains. Since 1761, the Uryankhay Tuvans of the Western Tannu were subordinate to the administration of Khovd, and since 1769, 5 khoshuns of the Eastern Tannu-Tuva were subordinate to the administration of Uliastai as part of Zasagt Khan. By the end of the 18th century, the population of the Uryankhay region was about 40 thousand people.

In 1857, Governor-General N. Muravyov-Amursky sent people to the border of Uryankhay and proposed to strengthen this border of Russia. However, the Khovd administrator, who was very sensitive to this issue, arrested the arriving Russians under the pretext that they did not have proper documents. Petersburg did not take it too seriously. However, in 1867, Prince Apakidze arrived at the border of the region on behalf of the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, that Uryankhayns were oppressing Russian subjects. And so the idea of joining this area to Russia became "official". In 1898, the governor of Eastern Siberia wrote to St. Petersburg that “for strategic and economic purposes, it is considered desirable to draw the border of Russia through Mount Tanna, and if possible, even through Altai”[viii]

By 1914, between 1,500 and 3,000 Russians lived permanently in Outer Mongolia, mainly in the Uryankhay region[ix]. The fact that the Russians were increasingly advancing into the Uryankhay region infuriated the nationalist Tuvans and Mongols, and they joined the Ja Lama's* army. In 1911, the Tuvans took an active part in the process of restoring national independence, occupied 25 branches of Chinese trade and burned their debt accounts, and more than three hundred warriors joined the Magsarjab army to liberate Khovd, which was the last stronghold of the Manchu Qing state in Mongolia.

The Uryankhay region of Mongolia has long attracted Russian interest both in terms of natural resources and in terms of strategy. Under the St. Petersburg Treaty of 1881, the Russians gained the right to free trade in Mongolia, which opened up the opportunity for them to resettle in the beautiful area around the Siyan mountain, the source of the Yenisei. The merchants of the Minusinsk, Yenisei and Irkutsk provinces saw a new Eldorado in the Uryankhay region. The gold diggers settled the land, followed by the peasants. By 1896, about two hundred Russian peasants had already begun to live off the arable land, and by 1910, more than two thousand Russians settled in about a hundred slums. In 1914, the Russians were extracting 1,440 pounds of gold annually from about thirty gold deposits.[x] A beautiful place with such a good return aroused the greed of the Russians. In 1907, the total volume of trade of Russian merchants in the Uryankhay region reached 2 million rubles, which accounted for half of the local trade, and by 1912-1913. they occupied all the markets of the Uryankhay region.[xi] 

In 1903, Safyanov, who lived on the outskirts of Uryankhay, traveled to Petersburg and filed a complaint with the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Russians living in Uryankhay are under constant pressure from local feudal lords, so the Russian government asked for their protection. The Foreign Office didn't care. However, they say that the case of the Uryankhay region greatly admired Emperor Nicholas II himself and that he wanted to include this extremely important region in Russia. In 1911, when Korostovets* presented his report on Mongolia to the ministry, Minister Sazonov was very dissatisfied with the inclusion of the question of the Uryankhay region in it.[xii] The problem, perhaps due to the influence of Emperor Nicholas II, returned to the East in November 1911 in St. Petersburg in another decision taken by the Council of Ministers of Tsarist Russia. It includes:

The Uryankhay frontier is a very important colonial region for us with fertile soil, good pastures and an abundance of various minerals, especially gold. It was considered expedient to allocate 5 million rubles for the study of the region and to set a course for the resettlement of 400,000 peasants.[xiii]

It was approved by Emperor Nicholas II on February 3, 1912. In April of the same year, the governors of the Usinsky district ordered in a letter from Emperor Nicholas II: “Recently, relations between Mongolia and China have deteriorated, and the Chinese merchant has been expelled from the territory of Uryankhay, so that the Russian merchant should take this place as soon as possible.” It is clear that at this time the Russian policy of annexing the distant Uryankhay region began.

When Korostovets went to Mongolia, he was instructed not to raise the question of the Uryankhay region at all, and if a question arose, to explain that this was an area of special interest for Russia. Of course, people will raise this issue. Da Lama Tserenchimed* said: "Let's assume that there are political reasons for the division of Mongolia into Outer and Inner Mongolia and the annexation of Barga to Manchuria, but the fact that the Uryankhay region is separated from Mongolia is incomprehensible."[xiv]

Before that, on February 28, 1911, under the leadership of the Irkutsk governor L. M. Knyazov, the issue of the Uryankhay region was discussed in Irkutsk. At this meeting, the ways of including the Uryankhay region into Russia were discussed. Uryankhay decided to reinforce the border troops to stimulate the movement of Russians heading towards the border and protect them. However, the main problem is that the resettling Russians are in sharp conflict with the local nomadic Tuvans, who are stingy with their pastures, so they need to be intimidated by the army.

In 1914, Russia declared the territory of Uryankhay its protectorate. Since the Urga authorities were extremely dissatisfied with the issue of the Uryankhay region, the Tuvans began to weave various intrigues against Russia, the Russian Foreign Ministry took urgent measures.[xv] There the village was named Belotsarsk as an administrative center, which made it clear to whom it belonged. Later, when the Russian Bolsheviks came, all the decisions of Tsarist Russia were considered valid, except that the name of the village was changed to Kyzyl (Red).

Mongolian Foreign Minister Khandorj first heard about Russia's intentions regarding Uryankhay's region from Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov. It includes:

“On the page you wrote, it says that several counties of the Uryankhay region are under your Mongolia. Uryankhay is not your Mongol tribe, and the religion is very different from yours, so you can’t think that your Mongolia has already subjugated them...[xvi] Tuvans are not Mongol tribes, and even their religion is different, so you can not consider them enslaved.[xvii]

Indeed, in the following year, 1914, the Russians declared the territory of Tannu Uryankhaya with its protectorate.

However, after the destruction of the Mongolian autonomy in 1919, by decision of the Chinese government, the Altai province was united with Xinjiang. The territory of Uryankhay was reintegrated into Outer Mongolia.[xviii]


In March 1921, an illegal government-in-exile called the Mongolian Provisional People's Government was established in Troitskosavsk, Russia. Chagdarjav was appointed chairman, Sukhe-Bator, Bodoo, Bilegtsaikhan, Sumya and Choibalsan were appointed members, and one remaining position was left open for appointment from the Uryankhay region. Moreover, Bodoo at the same time was in the legitimate government in Urga! On July 1, 1921, Begzeev and Khorloo, representing the Mongol asylum, raised the issue of the Uryankhay region at a meeting with Chicherin in Moscow. Shumyatsky* told Chicherin that "it would be better to leave the question of supplying the Uryankhay region of Mongolia open for the time being." The Bureau of the Comintern believed that the Uryankhay region would become part of the Mongolian Federation in the future, helping the revolution in the Uryankhay region. Therefore, the same representatives returned home with the understanding that the territory of Uryankhay would soon become part of People's Mongolia.[xix] 

In the autumn of 1921, representatives of the People's Government of Bodo, headed by Danzan, met with representatives of the Foreign Ministry of Soviet Russia in Moscow and held negotiations. In Article 3 of the Mongolian side's statement, Tannu clearly proved with historical facts that the Uryankhay region is the territory of Mongolia, and expressed confidence that peace in Uryankhay will be established only if Mongolia and Uryankhay become one country.

In response to this, the Soviet-Russian foreign officer Dukhovsky reported about Uryankhay: “On the question of Tannu Uryankhay... the proposal put forward by the Mongolian representative corresponds to the peace-loving aspirations of the working people of Russia. The Russian government is not worried about Tannu territory Uryankhay and supports the right of Tuvans to decide their own destiny.”[xx] However, more than a month earlier, the Russians had created a puppet state in the Uryankhay region and named it the Republic of Tannu - Tuva*. In addition, the Russians who settled in the Uryankhay region decided to create a revolutionary committee of the Russian self-governing labor colony of the region and be guided only by the Constitution of Soviet Russia.[xxi] 


In the Uryankhay region, the Soviets continued to refer to the policies of the old tsarist Russia. In preparation for the occupation of this beautiful land of 150,000 square kilometers, where only 30,000 people live, Tsarist Russia settled about 10,000 Russian citizens, which made its way forward clear. When local Tuvans demanded reunification, not realizing that they were being separated from Mongolia, settled Russians began to talk about joining Soviet Russia or some kind of independence. Although the Soviets reversed the decision of 1914 to declare the Uryankhay territory a Russian protectorate, they began to resolutely pursue the policy of Chinese sovereignty, but not the territory of Outer Mongolia.

In 1918, the territory of Uryankhay was under the control of the Kolchak government. A year later, the so-called "red guerillo" led by P.E. Shchetinkin came and captured Belotsarsky, which became the capital of the Uryankhay region. In the summer of 1921, the revolutionaries of Tuva, with the help of the Soviets, proclaimed the independence of the People's Republic of Tannu -Tuva and adopted a national flag and coat of arms. Belotsarsky, the capital of the Republic of Tyva, was named Khem-Beldyr in 1918, and then in 1926 Kyzyl (which means Red in Tuvan).

From Smirnov*, head of the Siberian Revolutionary Bureau, in a secret telegram to Moscow dated January 26, 1920, written on behalf of Lenin and Trotsky :

“The Mongols invaded and began to drive out our [Russian] peasants from their villages. These peasants were not related to the Kolchaks, but to those who fought with them. Soyod [Tuvans] - a nomadic tribe oppressed by the Mongols. Should the Uryankhay region be left under the control of the Mongols, or will it be captured by armed force, or will a Soviet republic be created in the Uryankhay region following the example of the Bashkirs? What do you think is better?"

Although Smirnov could not find a written answer from Lenin, the Kremlin, of course, chose the third option. The following year, he officially abolished the Russian protectorate over the Uryankhay region and declared it the Tannu-Tuva People's Republic..[xxii]

Tuva subsequently became a battleground between the Reds and Whites during the Russian Civil War. In August 1921, in the village of Sug-Badzhi of Tuva, a People's Conference of Tuva was convened, in which all chieftains, representatives of the Soviet Union and representatives of the Comintern in the Far East in Mongolia took part. When the meeting adopted a declaration on the establishment of the state of Tannu-Tuva, "The Republic of Tannu- Tuva will be a free people's state, independent of anyone." "The country will participate in international relations under the auspices of Soviet Russia." Prince Buyanbadrakh* was elected the first head. On August 13, 1921, Buyanbadrakh, elected chairman of the congress of representatives of all provinces, decided to make contact with Soviet Russia and founded the Tuva People's Revolutionary Party and the Union of Revolutionary Youth.[xxiii]

Relations between Tuvans and Russians, who settled in the region from the middle of the 19th century, were unenviable from the very beginning. In 1870-80s. Tuvinians attacked Russian settlements more than once, and in 1919 they attacked and destroyed dozens of Russian settlements. After the outbreak of the Civil War in Russia, the revolutionary government of Tuva, of course, was dissatisfied with the increase in the number of Russian refugees in the territory of Uryankhay. In the spring and summer of 1924, the Tuvans, dissatisfied with their government, raised their first uprising and called for joining Mongolia. The rebels plundered the Russian settlements. Dissatisfied with the too arbitrary actions of the Russians, a Tuvan movement for urgent unification with Mongolia was born and received great support, especially in the south. The movement was silently supported by most of the leaders of the government of Tuva, including Shagdarjav*, the recognized leader of the locals. The rebellion first broke out in Hemchi County and the rebels - more than six hundred people armed with shotguns - seized the county council,

Among the Tuvans there were also those who were loyal to the Russians. Danzan-Ool, a government deputy and chairman of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Party, was described by the Soviet permanent representative in Ulaanbaatar: “33-year-old Danzan-Ool is a monk, born in poverty, but wears the most Europeanized Russian shirt. Participated in the struggle of Tuvans against Russian settlers and robbed Russian citizens at first, and then turned into an ardent admirer of Soviet power. Danzan-Ool was recognized for his style of work as a Soviet man, but he also became notorious for his drunken antics. Once, being drunk, he pointed a pistol at Magsarjab and shouted: “You are a coward, you cannot withstand a bullet!”... It seems that Danzan-Ool plans to overthrow the current government in Mongolia...”[xxiv]

The Red Army, led by the partisan Yadryshnikov, and a detachment of settled Russians were sent to suppress the uprising. This detachment of two hundred men went into battle and killed several of them. On the other hand, the Mongols also reached the border of Uryankhay due to the fact that people from the Khemchi headquarters began a movement for unification with Mongolia. He sent a delegation led by Minister of Military Affairs Magsarjab*. The people 's government of Mongolia set before Magsarjab the task of finding out why the Tuvans, who were part of Mongolia, tried to secede and who incited them.[xxv] In a letter sent by the government of Tannu -Tuva to the government of Mongolia, “From the time of Tsarist Russia, the Russians began to settle and act arbitrarily, and Soviet Russia said that they would not occupy the territory of Uryankhay in the old way, and more and more settlers reached 11,984 people, therefore, please allow our complaint.”[xxvi]

But, in the end, under pressure from the Soviets, “the people of Tannu -Tuva must express their true wishes. Tuvans now need to improve their lives and political consciousness... The Soviet government and the government of Mongolia will give their friendly advice on this issue. When the necessary time comes, the population will decide whether to create the state of Tannu -Tuva or not... ” [xxvii]- the decision was made by representatives of the two countries “in one voice”. Of course, soon after that, “the right time came,” and at the “request” of its population, the Republic of Tannu -Tuva was proclaimed.

After that, the leaders of the Tannu-Tuva People's Republic, Dondog* and Shagdarjav, in a confidential letter sent to the leadership of the People's Democratic Party, wanted to annex the territory of Uryankhay to Mongolia as soon as possible. The Soviets thought that it would be good to suppress this intention of the Mongols, who were seeking independence, and immediately moved against them and intimidated them. From the resolution of the Eastern Department of the Executive Committee of the Comintern of August 17, 1925: “It was revealed that among some members of the People's Revolutionary Party there is a predisposition to the idea of pan-Mongolism. This attitude is the most dangerous phenomenon in the young party of the new country. These sentiments could bring China into conflict with the USSR, create a split among the Chinese working class, and ultimately lead to the destruction of the good deeds of the Mongolian People's Republic....[xxviii]

This "most dangerous" "Pan-Mongolian view" is just a claim to Uryankhay! On the contrary, because of the complaints of the Mongol leaders, the 16,000-strong district of the Hubsgul region was almost liberated from the hands of the soviets.[xxix]

In 1926, the Tannu -Tuva constitution was approved. Thus, a Soviet-style government was established there. One part of poor Mongolia was declared a separate country, so it looks like a joke, no match for other provinces in strength. Dorjpalam, who was working in Tuva at that time, reported to Ulaanbaatar that 30-40 people work in the Central Committee of the Tuvan Party and 5 government ministries, but the state is unable to pay wages. Therefore, instead of a salary, they receive goods. There will also be 60 national security forces, 10 of which will guard the border, while the rest will operate schools in the center. There is no special school or department where only 60 children study Russian and Mongolian writing.[xxx] 

After the suppression of the rebellion, the Tuva People's Party tightened the law and subjected the feudal lords, religious figures, wealthy people and peasants to repression. In 1929, the first general secretary of the Central Committee of the People`s Party of Tannu-Tuva and head of the government of Tuva, Buyanbadrakh, was arrested and shot in 1932. Together with him, the secretary of the Central Committee of the party, Irgit Shagdarjav, and former Prime Minister Khuular Dondog were killed.

After Dondog's arrest, five graduates of the Communist University of Workers of the East (KUTV) were appointed in 1930 as special people's commissars in Tuva. Commissars friendly to Stalin carried out a purge in the Tannu-Tuva People's Party, liquidated a third of its members and entered into a cooperative of its nomadic economy. The new government expressed support for Stalin's policies and declared the need to eradicate Buddhism and shamanism in Tuva. In 1929, 25 Buddhist temples, 4,000 monks and shamanic clans were destroyed, and in 1931 only one Buddhist temple, 15 monks and 725 shamans remained in the country, which proves that the policy has sufficiently achieved its goal.. But to change the way of life and the nomadic economy of the Tuvans was more difficult. According to the 1932 census, 82.2% of Tuvans were nomads. Salchig Togo*, appointed as a special commissioner was elected general secretary of the National People's Congress in 1932 and led Tuva until his death in 1973.[xxxi] His wife Anchimaa* became the head of the Tuva People's Assembly.


In the end, the Mongols had no choice but to come to terms with the fact that the territory of Uryankhay was separated from them forever, and in 1926 they recognized the People's Republic Tannu Tuva. Soon after, the advisers removed "Mongol leaders" such as Dondog, and installed Salchig Togo in his place.

Since 1926 it has been officially called the Tyva Republic. Prior to that, the USSR recognized the independence of Tuva in 1924. Two years later they were recognized by the USSR, but no country in the world recognized this independent country until it became part of the USSR in 1944.

The main provisions put forward by Minister Chicherin, who determined Soviet foreign policy, were:

About Outer Mongolia. We will announce that the Mongolian People's Republic will be autonomous under sovereignty China but _ we we will work above so that _ bring Mongolia closer to the Soviet political and economic form.

About Inner Mongolia. We reject the Mongolian government's desire to annex Inner Mongolia because of our political position in China...

About the edge of Uryankhay. We will refuse to join the Uryankhay krya to Mongolia, since we consider it a separate autonomy, like Mongolia under the suzerain of China.[xxxii]

During the Second World War, 8,000 Tuvans from the so-called "independent" country were mobilized in the Red Army and called "volunteers". 5000 of them received medals from the Soviet government. November 1943, US President Roosevelt and Councilor Hopkins met with Chiang Kai-shek, his wife Song Mailing*, and Defense Council Chairman Wang Chuhui*. The President asked about the current status of Tuva and how it interacts with its neighbors. Chiang Kai-shek: “Before the Russians forcibly annexed this territory, it was part of Outer Mongolia, part of China. When the time comes, the issue of Tuva will be resolved through dialogue with the Soviet Union together with Outer Mongolia.”

Since 1921, the Uryankhay region of Outer Mongolia began to be called Tannu-Tuva, which means another puppet republic of the USSR, and in 1944 "of its own accord" joined the multinational "holy family" of the USSR. Ethnic Tuvan Salchig Togo was awarded the Order of Lenin eight times, which is a kind of record in the history of the Soviet Union. On August 17, 1944, the 7th Tuva Conference decided to submit a petition to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union for the inclusion of the country into the USSR. The Supreme Council approved the request on October 11, and Tuva joined Soviet Russia with the status of an autonomous region. The entire process was carried out in strict confidentiality. The accession of the Baltic States and Moldova to the USSR is explained by the fact that they belonged to Russia in the 18-19 centuries. The accession of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus to the USSR is explained by the fact that the inhabitants were Ukrainians and Belarusians. However, Tuva, also known as the Uryankhay region, is a Turkic -speaking, nomadic people living in the southern part of Siberia, and since the 11th century it has been part of the Mongol tribes and is closely related to them in terms of appearance, culture, religion, politics and economy. In other words, Tuva has never had anything to do with Russia. There seems to be no historical explanation for the annexation of this country, land and people, which is completely irrelevant to him, so he kept it a secret.[xxxiii]

In 1944, Tannu-Tuva joined the "holy family" of the USSR. Salchig Togo received another Order of Lenin and was immediately awarded the rank of lieutenant general. Some Western scholars are ironic about the fact that "independent Tannu Tuva" was the business of the Ministry of Communications of the Soviet Union from 1921 to 1944. Because Tuvan postage stamps printed in Leningrad are the most popular rarity among philatelists.

It is significant that in October 1944 Tannu-Tuva was included in the USSR with an autonomous status. At that time, the situation was such that the world war was about to end, and the world would again be divided by the upcoming Yalta Treaty. Before this partition, Tuva was annexed, which it retained as a puppet state. At a time when the whole world was choking in the smoke of war, almost no one noticed such an annexation. The Soviets annexed Tuva and rewarded its leader, so the new young leader of Mongolia, Tsedenbal, took up the idea furiously and put forward a proposal to annex Outer Mongolia to the Soviet Union. They say that Stalin, hearing this proposal, said: “Mongolia is not Tyva, this is a great country with a great history!"* 

If the Chinese believe that Outer Mongolia in 1696 was part of the Manchu state of Qing, and the Republic of China, established in 1912, is the direct successor of the Qing dynasty, then, in their opinion, Tuva should also belong to China. In 1945, China recognized the independence of Outer Mongolia only within its existing borders, and did not recognize autonomous Tuva as part of the USSR. However, in 1914, Imperial Russia illegally declared the Uryankhay Territory to be its protectorate, but no one recognized this fact either. In 1921, the Uryankhay territory was separated from Outer Mongolia and declared an independent state, no one recognized this either. And in 1944, the Uryankhay Territory was declared an autonomous region within the USSR, without a single state or interstate treaty. Tuva was not included in the Cairo, Tehran and Yalta agreements on a new division of the world after the war. This issue was not discussed in the 1945 treaty between the USSR and China. On January 6, 1946, when the Republic of China officially recognized the independence of the Mongolian People`s Republic as a sovereign state, it did not include Tuva, which allegedly joined the Soviet Union. Thus, Tuva still remains an illegal entity, the ownership of which is not guaranteed by international treaties.


The reason why the Derbets fled Qinghai is unknown. Perhaps this is due to severe natural conditions and cataclysms, but then the question arises why the rest did not run. Five of the eight Manchu military corps that arrived to suppress the Oirat uprising were led by the Derbet princes of Qinghai. It was after this that the Qing emperor appreciated the efforts of the Derbets and in 1758 gave them land on the western shore of Lake Uvs and pushed the Tuvans north, to the Sayan Mountains. The Tuva-Mongolian border dispute has been a source of confusion for many years, as the Tuvans still claim the territory they once occupied as their own.

In 1932, under pressure from the USSR, negotiations were held to resolve this dispute between the Republic of Tyva and the MPR. At the request of Tuva, the question included the territory of the Mungun taiga, capes Uvori, Tes-Khemchi and Erzin in the south of Mount Tannu. The government of Genden adopted a resolution on the transfer of the Davst mountain to the ownership of Tuva for the joint extraction and processing of salt in this area. This escalated into a scandal within the Mongolian administration, and the State Khural refused to approve this decision.[xxxiv] In 1937, the Mongolian side declared the negotiations on the border lines of 1932 "unfair" and offered to resume negotiations with the participation of the Soviet Union. Even after the annexation of Tuva to the USSR, such a proposal was repeatedly promoted. But all these proposals were rejected by the Soviet side.[xxxv]

On March 28, 1940, at a banquet in honor of the Tenth Congress of the People's Party of Mongolia, a great confusion arose in Ulaanbaatar. The official reception was attended by the top leadership of Mongolia, headed by Choibalsan, representatives of Tuva, headed by the General Secretary of the People's Party Salchig Togo, plenipotentiary in Ulan Bator I. Ivanov*, Marshal G.K. Zhukov and other officials. Excerpt from Ivanov's diary:

Toka discussed the dispute over the border lines between the Tuva Republic and Mongolia. But because of this, Choibalsan and Toka quarreled. Choibalsan, holding a glass of champagne in his hands, said: “Where do you want to mess around, who do you want to argue with!” - and gave Toka a slap in the face. Toka came up to me and said: “How rude he is, he slapped not only me, but all Tuvans!” I exchanged a few words with Zhukov, and we decided to put an end to this senseless quarrel. We took Choibalsan aside and started talking about the dissolution of this party. Choibalsan was drunk and said: "I am the Prime Minister of Mongolia, why are you trying to speak harsh words to me?"[xxxvi]

In the Stalinist empire, not only the nomadic Kazakhs, the Kirghiz, but also the northern very backward peoples "successfully" built socialism with the help of such Slavs as Russians and Ukrainians. Therefore, Tsedenbal came to the "intellectual conclusion" that Mongolia cannot build socialism on its own, so it must become part of the USSR.[xxxvii]

The first letter with a proposal to include Mongolia in the USSR was issued already when Tuva was included in the USSR, on July 5, 1944. In fact, the fact that Tuva voluntarily "voluntarily" became part of the USSR led to Tsedenbal's initiative to join Mongolia to the USSR. At that time, the Politburo of the Mongolian People's Party did not consider this issue. If you look at the Soviet policy towards Tuva, then it seems that the leadership of the USSR would be pleased with such an initiative coming from Mongolia itself. However, Choibalsan did not like the whole idea and was able to prevent it, because he was saturated with nationalism.

In fact, since Tsedenbal understood Marxism, he may have slandered his subordinate as the initiator, but he was not strong in international relations and geopolitics. At the meetings in Cairo, Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam, the great powers divided the world anew. It was on the basis of these agreements that Mongolia became independent, but Tibet could not. Before the Yalta Treaty, Stalin managed to annex Tuva. The world has accepted a new order and new borders that have become inviolable; it cannot be violated by the “Marxist son of a poor shepherd”, representing poor countries in the periphery. In a completely new world, where completely new international rules dominated, the USSR, even with all its desire, could not integrate the MPR into itself, abolishing its independence. Tsedenbal was not educated enough to understand such simple things.

After the separation of Tuva, a dispute arose between Mongolia and Tuva over the border lines, drawn by them in 1924, and then in 1932. In June 1957, Molotov raised the issue as soon as he was appointed Soviet ambassador to Mongolia. This time the "initiative" of the new agreement did not come from Tuva, but from the Kremlin. So, in November of the same year, the Politburo of the MPRP, by its resolution, approved the representatives of the government to clarify the line of state borders. Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs S.Avarzed* was appointed head of the commission. The resolution ordered "to take into account the current vital needs of indigenous peoples, in addition to using historical materials as a basis for negotiations to clarify the border line."[xxxviii]

The issue of "taking into account the requirements of current life" was a 300-kilometer strip 3-30 kilometers in depth along the western and northwestern borders of Mongolia. "I have seen many foreign ministers like you, many," he scolded Avarzed, but in fact he hardly saw such a stubborn minister. The minister did not want to hear, much less accept the changes marked on the Molotov map. But Molotov needed a loan. He tried to find other worthy "merits" in this small distant Mongolia, but could not find. He became the head of the Soviet government to clarify the border strip and tried to intimidate and threaten Avarzed. According to Molotov's proposal, the main water basins, such as Tes and Shishged, should go to the Soviet side. Awarzad faced a historical situation. "What a history book! We defend the socialist camp so much, and yours should contribute to this, you just recently ran with petitions to join the USSR!" Avarzed asked to keep the current border strip and share natural resources. "We are a highly developed country in terms of technology and economy, so we can quickly use this land," Molotov said. The young minister did not give up. On the contrary, he grew stronger and several times mocked Molotov in the face. Avarzed told him: "This is 57, not 39!" If you think about it, he seems to be referring to the secret Ribbentrop-Molotov agreement.

Behind Avarzed stood the party's chairmen Damba. He encouraged the stubborn minister to "do what you think is right." However, he ended up in the hospital and hid himself.. The head of state J. Sambuu gave a strange answer: But how?! It was a "diplomatic" response that should not be followed by a question mark or exclamation mark. But Tsedenbal was interested in giving up this territory, which was the subject of a long dispute. “Prime Minister Tserendorj agreed to give them a gift in time. Just sign." In fact, the issue of the border lines between Mongolia and Tuva arose in 1932, and many years have passed since the death of Tserendorj. Moreover, there was no "corresponding" decision. It seems that he could not openly support the forced seizure of land Without explaning the reason. But the problem continued to reach Khrushchev. “I don’t understand the position of the person who is leading the Mongolian side in negotiations on the border line,” said the owner of the Kremlin. This is an easy way to solve the problem. Tsedenbal reported from Moscow: “...two months have passed since the start of bilateral operations to demarcate the border. During this period, negotiations slowed down and entered a state of discord. This should be decided in the spirit of Mongolian-Soviet friendship.[xxxix]Thus, Avarzed was removed from the leadership of the Mongolian delegation. Avarzed briefly explained to Tsedenbal that he was stubborn: "Because I am a Mongol." He was sent as an ambassador to Hungary because he could not be directly accused of abusing his land. A year later, he was called up and made the head of a rural collective, and a few years later, an ordinary driver. Unlike other drivers, he always sat in his car and read a French book. A French journalist, who met an ordinary driver reading a French book in the cabin of his car, was amazed by the education of the Mongols and wrote an article about it.

At this time, preparations were underway for the removal of Damba, the head of the party. When Khrushchev became the first man in the USSR, the power of the leader of the party, and not the prime minister, increased. When the Damba collapses, at least one of the two main seats - prime minister and party leader - will be vacant. Tsend was delighted with this. Because of this attraction, he was easily picked up by Tsedenbal. He took Avarzad's place as the head of the delegation and silently signed all the proposals that Tsedenbal persuaded and Molotov insisted on. It seems that he could only wait for the payback of this "stupid" courage that defiled his name. Soon Tsedenbal dismissed him from all positions and exiled him to the village. Under this agreement, Mongolia forever lost thousands of kilometers of its territory - a beautiful land. The homelands where Tsedenbal and Tsend were born were also included in the territory lost under this agreement.

Tsedenbal fills out his resume that he was born in 1916 in a place called Khandgait on the border with Tuva. Now the site of Khandgait is located just behind the demarcation line, in the Tuvan somon of Khandgait. The Mongolian border point is called Borsho. It seems that he could not openly support or force people to give the land where he was born as a gift to others. However, due to rumors about this, a knowledgeable person will say that the wintering place where Tsedenbal was born was later artificially built at the border of Mongolia. In 1981, when Tsedenbal visited Uvs province, he crossed the border and visited his parents' real winter quarters. Demarcation work was resumed in 1962 and 1976, and mutual commissions were set up to review the demarcation, which has over 250 years of history. Thus, as a result of these three revisions to the USSR, a total of 2442.4 sq. km of territory, including 2321.7 sq. km - Autonomous Tuva and 120.7 sq. km - the Republic of Buryatia.[xl] In addition, the northern shore of Lake Uvs, always located entirely within the borders of Mongolia, became the property of Russia, and the mountain and the lake became the common property of the two border countries. In 1997, the Mongolian parliament approved a tripartite agreement that established the borders of Russia, Mongolia, and China. Thus, Mongolia has a fully demarcated border.


After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, non-Russian minorities in Russia were named republics with a constitution and a president, and the autonomous Tuva was one of them. The official name is the Republic of Tyva. Republic Day is celebrated on August 15, the date of independence in 1921. The post of president was abolished in 2002.

After the collapse of the USSR, one of the pluralist groups, the nationalist organization "Khotut Tyva" ("Free Tuva"), advocated the "proclamation" of an independent Tuvan state and its separation from the Russian Federation. In 1992-1993 alone, more than 20,000 Russian residents left Tuva due to conflicts with Russian citizens, coercion, persecution and intimidation. The conflict between the Tuvans and the Russians who moved there is very old, and the Tuvans, who are of hunting origin, often shot the Russians from afar. Therefore, they say that after the entry of Tuva into the USSR, there was a law that did not punish the killing of Tuvans in order to protect their lives, and it was valid until 1956. In 2014, Tuva was supposed to celebrate its 70th anniversary. anniversary of joining the Soviet Union, but it is said that the anniversary could not be widely celebrated due to rumors that "70 Russians will be shot on the occasion of the 70th anniversary."Now the nomads of Tuva have about a million sheep and goats and 180 thousand heads of cattle.[xli] In 2016, a meat processing plant was established, processing about 400,000 tons of meat per year, which contributed to a decrease in the number of livestock.

The bowels of Tuva are rich in non-ferrous and rare earth metals, coal, iron and gold. The coal reserves of the Ulug-Khem coal basin are set at 14 billion tons. However, since the deposit is located in the south of the Sayan Mountains, it is impossible to drive through the mountain range to Russia, so its export to China through Mongolia has been discussed for many years.

From the moment of joining the USSR, Tuva was considered the poorest region of Russia. According to 2017 statistics, more than 40% of the population is below the poverty line. Child poverty is at an all-time high in the country. The number of children in the structure of the population is about 35%, and most families live on welfare due to lack of work. Unemployment is 20%. The share of Tuva in the Russian economy: Industry-0.0%, Agriculture 0.2%, Trade 0.1%, Investments 0.0%. In the Russian Federation, it ranks 81st in terms of investment risk, 81st in terms of investment potential, there is practically no housing construction in Tuva, and the level of corruption and crime is one of the highest in the Russian Federation[xlii] The level of childbearing and childbearing with relatives is very high.

Alcoholism is almost ubiquitous. In Soviet times, when cattle breeders were paid wages, alcohol was sold next to the truck shops. Neighboring Mongols are said to have collected empty vodka bottles found in the winter camps of a Tuvan family and transported them across the border to buy a motorcycle. Cross-border livestock theft was common in Mongolia and Tuva. In Tuva, the number of livestock has sharply decreased, so this type of theft is now only in one direction.

Born in 1956, Sergei Shoigu, a construction site manager by trade, achieved remarkable political success in the Putin era, becoming Russia's defense minister and army general. Tuvans consider him a descendant of the famous Mongol commander Uryankhay Subedei. Due to the mistake of the geographical name "Uryankhay", Shoigu probably believes it himself. Tuvans erected a 27-ton statue of Subedei for Shoigu. Tuvan craftsmen and artists continue to create sculptures by the tandem of Subedei and Shoigu. Even in Tuva there is a pig farm named after General Shoigu. Does Shoigu, whose mother is Ukrainian, care about poor Tuva? Every year, President Putin is invited to his native land, where he rests and hunts in the Sayan Mountains. It must be a kind of "appearance of Christ" for the Tuvans?

Tuvans, living thousands of kilometers from Kyiv, have suffered the most from Russian aggression in Ukraine. If we compare the number of people killed in Ukraine per capita of 10,000 people, it becomes clear that Tuva and Buryatia are in the lead in this black statistics. Information about the donation of sheep as compensation to the families of soldiers who died in the war is spreading on social networks.


* Ja Lama, also known as Dambiijantsan, (1862–1922) was an adventurer and warlord of unknown birth and background who fought successive campaigns against the rule of the Qing dynasty in western Mongolia between 1890 and 1922.

* Korostovets, Ivan (1862-1933) - Russian diplomat, orientalist.

* Da Lam Tserenchimed (1869 – 1914) was a prominent lama and early 20th century Mongolian independence leader. 

* Knyazov, Leonid (1851-1929) Russian statesman, governor of Tobolsk, Courland, Irkutsk.

* Shumyatsky,Boris (1886 –1938) was a Soviet politician, diplomat

* Initially it should be Tannu Tuva. "Tagna" is spelled as " tang -nu" in Mongolian and "tagna" read. Since there is no letter for the nasal sound “ng” in Russian, “n” is written twice and reads like that.

* Smirnov, Ivan (1881-1936) Russian revolutionary, head of the Siberian Revolutionary Bureau (1919-1920). 

* Buyanbadrach (1892-1932) Tuva state public figure. Head of Tuva (1921-1929)

* Shagdaryav, Irgit (1899-1959) Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Party of Tuva (1929-1932).

* Magsarjab (1877-1927) was a Mongolian general and a leading figure in Mongolia's struggle for independence.

* Dondog, Khuulary (1888-1930) Prime Minister of Tuva (1926-1930)

* Togoo, Salchig (1901-1973) Russified name of Salchak Kalbak-Khorekovich Toka. Soviet Tuvan party statesman. Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Party of Tuva (1932-1944), Chairman of the Party of the Tuva Autonomous Region (1944-1952), Chairman of the Party of the Tuva Region (1952-1973).

* Anchimaa-Toka, Gertek Amyrbitova (1912-2008) head of state of Tuva (1940-1944)

* Soong Mailing (1898-2003), also known as Madame Chiang Kai-shek. The daughter-in-law of Sun Yat-sen, the wife of Chiang Kai-shek, the first lady of China, a woman who had a great influence in Chinese life.

* Wang Chunhui (1881-1958) Chinese diplomat, Minister of Foreign Affairs (1937-1941).

*“Mongolia is not Tyva. This is a great historical force." In 1995 Academician B. Shirendev told the authors that Stalin had said this. 

*Ivanov, Ivan (1906-1948) - Soviet diplomat, military, special services officer, major general, plenipotentiary and ambasador in Mongolia 1939-1947.

* Avarzed Sonomyn (1922-1989), Minister of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia (1957-1958)

[i]Potanin Grigory Nikolaevich "Essays on North-Western Mongolia" 1883

[ii]Oyunchimeg Bayangaa .Mongolian tribes in the 7th-12th centuries. [Mongolian tribes in the 7th-12th centuries]

[iii]Egunov N.P. The Baikal region in antiquity and the problem of the Ogigei . (Buryat book publishing house, 1984) c-207 [Egunov N.P. Baikal region in antiquity and the problem of the origin of the Buryat people. ) Buryat book publishing house, 1984)] p-207

[iv]Miyawaki Junko The Last Nomad Empire (UB 2014) p. 113 [ Miyawaki Junko 's Last Nomad Empire ]

[v]Miyawaki Junko, A History of Mongolia : From Ancient Nomads to Modern Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar, 2017), p. 155 [ Miyawaki Junko, History of Mongolia ]

[vi]Miyawaki Junko The Last Nomad Empire (UB 2014) p. 187 [ Miyawaki Junko Empire of the Last Nomads ]

[vii]Sodnodavga, Ts. Organization of governance of Ar Mongolia during the period of Manchu rule (1691-1911) (Ulaanbaatar, 1961) p-96 [ Sodnomdagva, Ts. Administrative structure of Outer Mongolia under the rule of the Manchus, 1691-1911 ]

[viii] Dachishen, V. GRAMM. Essay on the history of the Russian-Chinese border in the second half of the 19th century (Kyzyl, 2000), pp. 108-116.

[ix] Kuzmin, Yu. V., Demberel K.K. Russian colony in Urga (1861-1920 ) (Irkutsk 1994) p-118 [Kuzmin Yu.V., Demberel K. Russian colony in Urga (1861-1920) (Irkutsk 1994)] p-118

[x] Nyamaa, A. Ethnic Mongols in Russia, Tyva Republic (UB, 1995), p. 91 [ Nyamaa, A. Ethnic Mongols in Russia: Tuva Republic ]

[xi]Secret of Independence of Outer Mongolia (unpublished manuscript translated into Mongolian, published in Beijing in 1993) pg. 234 [ Secret of Independence of Outer Mongolia]

[xii] Korostovets, I.Ya. From Genghis Khan to the Soviet Republic ( Publishing house " Emgent " Ulaanbaatar 2004) p-255-56 [ Korostovets I.Ya. From Genghis Khan to the Soviet Republic (Ulaanbaatar, 2004)] pp. 255-256.

[xiii] Nyama, A. Ethnic Mongols in Russia, Tyva Republic (UB, 1995), p. 92 [ Nyamaa, A. Ethnic Mongols in Russia: Tuva Republic ]

[xiv] Korostovets, I.Ya. From Genghis Khan to the Soviet Republic ( Publishing house " Emgent ", Ulan Bator, 2004) p-249 [ Korostovets I.Ya. From Genghis Khan to the Soviet Republic (Ulaanbaatar, 2004)] p. 249.

[xv] Korostovets, I.Ya. From Genghis Khan to the Soviet Republic ( Publishing house " Emgent " Ulaanbaatar 2004) p-258 [ Korostovets I.Ya. From Genghis Khan to the Soviet Republic (Ulaanbaatar, 2004)] p. 258.

[xvi]Tachibana Makoto Forgotten history of Mongolia. Government of the Bogd Khan (1911-1921) (Ulaanbaatar, 2011) p. 128 [The Forgotten History of Tochiban Makoto Mongolia: Government of the Bogd Khan ]

[xvii]Тачибана Макото Забытая история Монголии. Правительство Богдо-хана (1911-1921) (Улан-Батор, 2011) стр. 128 [Tochibana Makoto Forgetten history of Mongolia: Government of the Bogd Khan]

[xviii] Bold. Mongolian independence of Ravdanga and the United States of America (1910-1973) ( Nepko Publishing House, 2008), p. 87 [Brave, Ravdangiin. [ Independence of Mongolia and the United States ]

[xix] Luzyanin, S. GRAMM. Russia, Mongolia and China in the first half of the 20th century. ( Publishing house of the Institute of the Far East of the Russian Academy of Sciences, M., 2003) p-111 [ Luzyanin S.G. Russia, Mongolia and China in the first half of the 20th century ]

[xx] Central Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs f-117 p / n 01 [Central Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ]

[xxi] Nope. A. Ethnic Mongols in Russia, Tyva Republic (UB, 1995), p-97 [ Nyamaa, A. Ethnic Mongols in Russia: Tyva Republic ]

[xxii]McMullen, Ronald Tuva: Russian Tibet or New Lithuania? ( European Security, Vol. 2, No. 3, Fall 1993), pp. 451–460.

[xxiii]Trifonov Evgeny Tuva: Forgotten extension Who suffered in the battle on the Khalkh River ? ( Nepko, Ulaanbaatar Publishing House, 2019) pp. 140-151 [Trifonov Evgeny Tuva: Forgotten Supplement ]

[xxiv]Location in the Uryankhay region (Secret information of the permanent mission of the USSR in 1925) ( Ug 1991) [ Location in Uryankhay region ]

[xxv]Order to Plenipotentiary Minister Magsaryav ( Newspaper Word ) 1991 SCAR [ Assignment to Plenipotentiary Minister Magsaryav ]

[xxvi]Notes on the People's Government of Tannu Tuva 1991 State Central Archive [ Notes on the People's Government of Tannu Tuva ]

[xxvii] Kallinnikov. Revolutionary Mongolia (Moscow 1925) st-94-95 [Kallinikov A.D. Revolutionary Mongolia (Moscow 1925)] st-94-95

[xxviii] Beautiful. O. Opposition to the unification of the Mongolian tribes... ( Newspaper Il Bureau 1992) No. 7 [ Batsaikhan, O. Opposition to the unification of the Mongolian tribes ]

[xxix] Fritters. Gerard M. Outer Mongolia and its international position ( The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1949), p. 131.

[xxx] Badra. Badrakh U. The experience of the party's struggle against right-wing opportunism (Ulaanbaatar, 2001), p. 105.

[xxxi]Trifonov Evgeny Tuva: Forgotten annex Who suffered in the battle on the Khalkh River? (Nepko, Ulaanbaatar Publishing House, 2019) pp. 140-151 [Trifonov Evgeny Tuva: Forgotten Supplement ]

[xxxii] Document related to the issue of granting the independence of Mongolia ( Documents and materials related to the conflict over the recognition of the independence of Mongolia 1992 No. 2)

[xxxiii]Trifonov Evgeny Soviet and Mongolian hidden history; Tuva: Forgotten Supplement (Nepko, Ulaanbaatar Publishing House, 2019) p. 294

[xxxiv]Luzyanin S. GRAMM. Russia-Mongolia-China in the first half of the twentieth century. Political Relations in 1911-1946. : "Lights", 2003. 320 p.

[xxxv]Luzyanin S. GRAMM. Russia-Mongolia-China in the first half of the twentieth century. Political Relations in 1911-1946. : "Lights", 2003. 320 p.

[xxxvi]Luzyanin, S. GRAMM. Russia, Mongolia and China in the first half of the 20th century. ( published by the Institute of the Far East of the Russian Academy of Sciences, M., 2003) p-10 [Luzyanin S.G. Russia, Mongolia and China in the first half of the 20th century ]

[xxxvii]Light and Shadow: From the Personal Notes of Y. Tsedenbal (Ulaanbaatar, 1992) [ Light and Shadow: Tsedenbal's Personal Notes ]

[xxxviii] Decree No. 357 of the Poliburo of the MPRP, 1957

[xxxix] Purevdagva N., Tuya.S. Tragedy in the Dark Years or Luvsantserengiin Tsend (Ulaanbaatar, 1999) p-94 [Purevdagva, N. Tragedy in the Dark Years: Luvsantserengiin Tsend ]

[xl] Davanyam, P. Every inch belongs to people

[xli]Socio-economic situation of the Republic of Tuva in 2020 . Access to data: April 17, 2021

[xlii]In 2017, poverty in the Republic of Tyva was 41.5% , - TASS agency . Access to data: September 22, 2020